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IIE Center for Academic Mobility Research & Impact;
The fourth report from our 10-year tracking study of the Ford Foundation International Fellowships Program (IFP), Transformational Leaders and Social Change provides important insights into the personal, organizational, community, and societal impacts of IFP alumni in Kenya, Nigeria, Palestine, and South Africa, drawn from the perspectives of 361 IFP alumni and local stakeholders.
The results of this study show that the program had a positive impact on participants, with alumni saying that their IFP experience increased their confidence, awareness, self-identity, commitment, leadership, career advancement despite challenges upon re-entry at the end of the fellowship. Some alumni returned to face career barriers endemic to their community and home region, such as high unemployment rates and other labor market challenges. At an organizational level, alumni and community stakeholders said that these organizations now have a stronger work ethic, consistency, transparency, and accountability since alumni returned to their home communities. Stakeholders also said that the alumni they work with are more reliable and committed to getting the job done.
Violence against women and girls is often perpetuated by practices defended by some community members on the basis of tradition, culture, religion or superstition. These include female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) and early marriage. Such harmful traditional practices are underpinned by social norms, the rules of behaviour that people in a group adhere to because they believe that they are expected to do so and that others do so. In Nigeria, one in four women aged 15-49 has undergone FGM/C, and 48 percent of women aged 20-49 were married before the age of 18.
Enough, a worldwide Oxfam campaign, aims to replace harmful social norms with positive ones that promote gender equality and non-violence. To better understand which social norms perpetuate traditional practices in Nigeria and how they influence behaviour, Oxfam in Nigeria conducted formative research by interviewing 20 men and 20 women and analysing the results in a campaign design workshop with partner organizations and experts working on violence against women and girls. The findings will inform the development of the Enough campaign in Nigeria.
From the research and subsequent analysis in the workshop, four social norms were identified as drivers of the harmful traditional practices FGM/C and early marriage: A respectable woman marries early; A respectable woman is submissive to male authority; A suitable woman is not promiscuous; A woman is worth more as a wife than as a daughter. Women and girls who transgress these norms face four main kinds of sanction: peer pressure, condemnation, exclusion and force. Encouragingly, although the research found that respondents believe others still think it is appropriate to follow traditional practices, many of the respondents' own individual attitudes have already shifted - a first signifier of social norms change.
The protracted conflict in the Lake Chad Basin has cut off millions of women and men from their livelihoods, making them dependent on humanitarian assistance to survive. Much emphasis has been given to the stabilization agenda, with a focus on securitization. However, Oxfam's research in late 2017 showed that early recovery and livelihoods development are much needed and should be prioritized to promote resilience among crisis-affected communities, to reduce dependency on humanitarian aid, and ultimately to promote sustainable peace.
Rockefeller Archive Center;
Early in September 2015, I was discussing my research with a Ph.D. candidate that I had met for the first time at the University of Texas, Austin. I told him that I had conducted preliminary research at the British National Archives and Cadbury Research Library in Birmingham, England during the previous summer. These archives had colonial and missionary documents, respectively, and I expressed a desire to explore documents on healthcare in Nigeria by groups other than the government or the church. My colleague told me about the Rockefeller Archive Center's (RAC) collection and encouraged me to contact an archivist about documents on Nigeria. Of course, I was skeptical. "What can an archive in New York have on early Nigerian history?", I mused. Seeing my reluctance, he reiterated that there was no limit to the collection's reach and gave me a link to the website. I contacted an archivist who encouraged me to search the Center's database. I was surprised and delighted to find tons of files on medicine and reproductive health in Nigeria.
Institute of International Education;
The MacArthur Foundation's Fund for Leadership Development (FLD) was created and launched two and half decades ago, as an initiative of the Foundation's Population and Reproductive Health (PRH) Program. First implemented in Brazil, and later in Mexico, Nigeria and India, the program aimed to promote innovative solutions to the population‐related problems facing each country, and to foster new leadership by enhancing opportunities for individuals to make lasting contributions to the PRH field. Although the local circumstances and population issues addressed through the FLD varied widely among and within the four focus countries, its overarching goals remained constant.
Our decision to commission a retrospective evaluation of the FLD at this particular point in time was spurred by renewed interest at the Foundation in "investments in people" as complements to more traditional grants and impact investments. The Foundation is well known in the United States for its MacArthur Fellows Program, which awards no‐strings‐attached fellowships to exceptionally creative individuals across a limitless range of endeavors. Though different in scope and duration, the FLD program explored a related approach to investing in people, one focused on building a particular field in four distinct national contexts outside of the U.S.
The purpose of this evaluation was to better understand the long‐term outcomes of the FLD program, as well as the experiences and trajectories of its grantees. Alumni of the program, PRH experts in each of the four focus countries, and those who administered the program shared not only what they consider to be the program's strengths and challenges, but also insights as to how effectively the various components of the program supported the program's goals. Given the time that had lapsed since the implementation of the FLD program, this evaluation necessarily relied heavily on self‐reported data from program participants and their recollections of activities from many years past. As such, the findings of this report have their limitations. We do not wish to attribute the accomplishments of FLD alumni directly and exclusively to the program itself. Nor should we interpret the responses and statements of those surveyed and interviewed to represent the entirety of the FLD grantee population. Rather, the lessons that have emerged offer useful guidance that may inform the design of future investments‐in‐people endeavors.
By analysing the approaches governments and donors are taking, we highlight ways in which progress is being made, and we call on decision-makers to shift mindsets, change ways of working, and invest now in effective integration to improve child health.
Building on last year's The missing ingredients report, this report highlights why WASH is essential for nutrition, and how this integration could be strengthened. Through an analysis of nutrition and WASH plans and policies in ten countries, we identify gaps and ways of working. The report highlights where there has been effective integration at the policy level and how improvements can be made. It also includes an analysis of donor initiatives and to what extent WASH has been incorporated in nutrition investments.
Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council;
In 2016, WSSCC's Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) recruited an independent team of experts to undertake an in-depth two-part diagnosis of GSF's approach to equality and non-discrimination (EQND). The first part of the diagnosis – an assessment comprising of visits to six countries (Ethiopia, Malawi, Nepal, Nigeria, Senegal and Togo) and a review of documentation across all GSF-supported programmes – was completed in 2017, resulting in this study. While confirming that many people who may be considered disadvantaged have benefitted positively from GSF-supported programmes, the study emphasizes that more proactive attention is needed to ensure no one is left behind. Several recommendations are offered to better integrate EQND throughout the components and stages of all GSF-supported programmes.
The World Citizens Panel (WCP) is an impact measurement methodology developed by Oxfam Novib. It is designed to measure and understand the changes in people's lives resulting from Oxfam's projects. The WCP combines quantitative research (impact surveys) with qualitative research (Stories of Change) to give participants in Oxfam Novib's programmes a voice, to learn how our programmes can be improved, and to contribute to the public debate on the effectiveness of development cooperation.
This impact study of the programme in Nigeria was carried out in 2014-2015. Interviewers carried out a total of 4,953 interviews; 12 partners carried out the surveys in their own areas of intervention. The study included a broad set of indicators, covering major dimensions of poverty and injustice. Data collected by partners with the help of a smartphone app was transferred into a central database, managed and analysed by the Oxfam Novib World Citizens Panel team. Based on the outcomes of the impact surveys, it was decided to conduct further qualitative research with Stories of Change on gender-based violence and land rights for women.
This report presents the major findings from the analysis of the survey results and Stories of Change.
Higher education is the bedrock of sustainable national development, which encompasses structural transformation of an economy, human capital development, technological innovation, forging of democratic citizenship, social cohesion, nation building, and preserving the earth. Like other countries, these were the reasons for the establishment of universities and other tertiary education institutions in Nigeria. However, over the past three decades, beginning in the 1980s, in spite of increases in the number of higher education institutions, the sector has been bedevilled with several challenges that have blighted its fortunes and raised serious questions about the role and relevance of Nigerian universities and other tertiary education institutions to national development. The contributors to this book offer authoritative and eloquent accounts of these challenges and explicitly draw out the policy implications on how the challenges can be overcome in order for Nigerian higher education institutions to regain relevance to the developmental imperatives of the country, especially in the 21st century and beyond. This book will be of great value to students, leaders of higher education institutions, and policy makers in government and the private sector to chart new policy directions to revitalise the Nigerian higher education sector in order to be responsive to the needs of the country and its people, especially the teeming population of restless youths.
Economist Intelligence Unit, The;
Fixing Food is an Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) report on food system sustainability globally, spanning agriculture, nutrition, and food loss and waste. It draws on an interview programme with experts from the academic, public and private sectors and is published alongside the Food Sustainability Index (FSI), a quantitative and qualitative benchmarking model, which ranks 25 countries according to their food system sustainability. The project was developed with the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition (BCFN).
Since 2009, millions of people in the Lake Chad Basin have been affected by a conflict originating in Nigeria. Over 2.6 million people have been displaced by the violent acts of a group popularly known as Boko Haram, and the military operation that has followed. Far from abating, the conflict has intensified and spilled over into neighbouring countries. Some 9.2 million people are now in immediate need of humanitarian assistance across Nigeria, Chad, Niger and Cameroon. Although this is Africa's fastest growing displacement crisis, the humanitarian impact has received scant international attention.This paper aims to give voice to people affected by the conflict. It calls for donors and the governments of the affected countries to do much more to provide help to people in need, as well as guarantee their safety, uphold their rights and allow immediate humanitarian access to areas that are currently receiving little to no assistance.
Walk Free Foundation;
The Global Slavery Index ('the Index') provides an estimate of the number of people in modern slavery, the factors that make individuals vulnerable to this crime, and an assessment of government action across 167 countries.
The Global Slavery Index is based on state of the art research methodology that has been developed with the assistance of an independent Expert Working Group, comprised of world leading experts. The methodology has also been subjected to independent external review. This estimate is based on data from nationally representative, random sample surveys conducted in 25 countries. All surveys were conducted face-to-face in key local languages using a standardised instrument. Collectively, these surveys represent 44 percent of the global population. The results of these surveys have been extrapolated to countries with an equivalent risk profile.
The 2016 estimate is an increase on the estimate provided in the previous edition of the Index. As efforts to measure this hidden crime are still relatively new, we are not asserting that modern slavery has increased in the intervening period. Indeed, results from our surveys reveal some national estimates have increased while others have decreased. We believe that the overall larger number reflects a significant increase in the quality and quantity of research on this issue. While the methodology will continually improve, even at this early stage, survey data have greatly improvedthe accuracy of our measures.