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Large-scale and complex emergencies often occur in countries where government institutions have weak coping capacity. They may struggle to deliver essential services routinely, even in non-emergency situations. This has serious implications for the way in which emergency water, sanitation and hygiene services are managed long-term and in the transition from emergency to post-emergency situations.
UNHCR and Oxfam commissioned a study to understand more about how emergency WASH services are delivered, and to identify how the provision of infrastructure can lead to sustainable service delivery and a more professional management mechanism. As many humanitarian crises are protracted in nature, emergency WASH services need to be sustained once humanitarian agencies depart. This report aims to review and identify alternative service delivery options, and to provide some pragmatic guidance that can be incorporated into emergency response programmes and tested, evaluated and built on in the future.
USAID Learning Lab;
Sanitation behavior change is a notoriously complex intervention. In the harsh, remote environment of the Ethiopian lowlands, this is particularly so. Community-Led Total Sanitation and Hygiene (CLTSH) interventions, while successful in Ethiopia's densely populated highland areas, have never been implemented at scale in the lowlands. We learned that in these communities, dominated by (semi-) pastoralist groups, that the operating conditions for effective, sustained behavior change are highly variable. A Collaborating, Learning and Adapting (CLA) approach helped the program team define, pivot and re-design activities that addressed project effectiveness.
Our experience is drawn from the USAID/Ethiopia-funded Lowland Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Activity that works to accelerate access to improved WASH in three rural lowland regions: Afar, Somali, and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples (SNNP). Mid-activity data review highlighted several disappointing results that prompted a program team rethink. With both the implementing team and USAID/Ethiopia interested in critical feedback to adapt their approaches, USAID Lowland WASH Activity adopted the CLA framework to address these challenges. Utilizing pause and reflect, strategic collaboration, adaptive management and M&E for learning, an intentional CLA process allowed for a virtuous cycle of learning to occur.
While still too early to determine the full effect of the CLA approach on development outcomes, encouraging results have emerged. A stronger set of 'performance envelope' criteria allowed for better targeting and sustainable CLTSH interventions; adaptation of the communication strategy led to effective storytelling practices in local languages, and project insights led to the refinement of Open Defecation Free (ODF) certification in Somali to a more manageable village- instead of Kebele-level definition.
CLTS Knowledge Hub;
La CLTS Knowledge Hub, basée à l'Institute of Development Studies, a organisé un atelier régional à Arusha en Tanzanie, du 16 au 20 avril 2018 avec l'aide de la SNV Tanzanie. L'événement a réuni les personnes impliquées dans la programmation de l'EAH en milieu rural dans huit pays de la région (Burundi, Érythrée, Éthiopie, Kenya, Malawi, Ouganda, Tanzanie et Zambie) aux côtés d'experts travaillant aux niveaux régional et mondial. Durant les cinq jours de l'atelier, les participants ont échangé leurs expériences, les innovations, les problèmes rencontrés et les acquis et ils ont recensé les manques de connaissances dans le but d'améliorer les capacités et l'apprentissage futur et d'arriver à un consensus sur la façon d'aller de l'avant. Par ailleurs, la SNV Tanzanie a facilité une visite d'étude dans ses zones du projet Assainissement durable et Hygiène pour Tous (SSH4A) dans les districts de Babati et Karatu.
Cette note d'apprentissage présente les problèmes les plus communs et les obstacles à la réalisation de l'Objectif de développement durable (ODD) 6.2 que les participants à l'atelier ont identifiés dans toute la région. Elle résume les discussions qui se sont tenues toute la semaine, met en avant les pratiques prometteuses et considère des actions prioritaires pour aller de l'avant.
CLTS Knowledge Hub;
The CLTS Knowledge Hub, based at the Institute of Development Studies, convened a regional workshop in Arusha, Tanzania, 16-20 April 2018 with support from SNV Tanzania. The event brought together those engaged in rural WASH programming from eight countries across the region (Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia) alongside experts working at regional and global levels. Over the course of five days participants shared experiences, innovations, challenges and learning, and mapped gaps in knowledge with the aim of improving capacity and future learning, and building consensus on the way forward. SNV Tanzania also facilitated a field visit to its Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene for All (SSH4A) project areas in Babati and Karatu districts.
This learning brief presents the common challenges and barriers to achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6.2 that the workshop participants identified across the region. It summarises discussions held across the week, highlights promising practices and considers priority actions moving forward.
This report examines the second phase of Oxfam's Women's Economic Empowerment and Care (We-Care) programme. The first phase focused on building evidence for influencing policy change on women's heavy and unequal unpaid care work in six countries. The second phase of the programme seeks to continue deepening the evidence base; strengthen influencing capacity on unpaid care; develop and test new strategies, resources and approaches; and capture and share learning with the development sector on effective influencing.
The report also includes progress reports from three countries in which the programme is active: Uganda, Zimbabwe and Ethiopia.
This report presents the findings of the impact evaluation of the project 'African Climate Change and Resilience Alliance (ACCRA) in Ethiopia (phase 2)', which ran from 1 November 2011 to 31 December 2016 as part of the Oxfam GB's global CHASE Programme Partnership Arrangement (PPA4) portfolio. The project aimed to enhance governance systems and climate resilience, and to achieve climate justice - fairness towards vulnerable communities affected by climate change. It was implemented by Oxfam in Ethiopia, the lead partner of ACCRA in Ethiopia. The evaluation is part of Oxfam GB's Effectiveness Review series.
Institute of Development Studies (IDS);
A rapid review of the literature has found a selection of innovative WASH options available for situations of severe population overcrowding and limited spaces. Case study information was collated from African, Middle Eastern, South Asian and Caribbean countries. As requested, a number of experts were consulted for their opinion where there was a lack of project evaluations or grey literature.
World Bank Group;
With 2.1 billion people – mostly in rural areas – lacking safely managed drinking water and reported low rural water supply functionality rates, the Sustainable Development Goals pose a triple challenge: to reach unserved mostly rural population groups, to raise service levels, and to sustain existing and future services. This assessment uses a multi-country case study approach to identify good practices and challenges toward building sector capacity and strengthening sustainable service delivery models for rural areas. Recognizing the limitations of the Demand Responsive Approach, the emergence of various management models, the identified need for ongoing support to rural service providers, and the critical role of enabling institutions and policies beyond the community-level, the added value of this assessment lies in: i) the development of a comprehensive analytical framework that can be used to analyze and operationalize a more sustainable service delivery approach for rural water supply; ii) the rich set of cases and good practices from the 16 countries informing the global body of "knowledge in implementation," and iii) the formulation of recommendations and policy directions to improve the sustainability of services depending on sector development stage. Policy recommendations are centered around five areas: institutional capacity, financing, asset management, water resources management, and monitoring and regulatory oversight.
By analysing the approaches governments and donors are taking, we highlight ways in which progress is being made, and we call on decision-makers to shift mindsets, change ways of working, and invest now in effective integration to improve child health.
Building on last year's The missing ingredients report, this report highlights why WASH is essential for nutrition, and how this integration could be strengthened. Through an analysis of nutrition and WASH plans and policies in ten countries, we identify gaps and ways of working. The report highlights where there has been effective integration at the policy level and how improvements can be made. It also includes an analysis of donor initiatives and to what extent WASH has been incorporated in nutrition investments.
Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council;
In 2016, WSSCC's Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) recruited an independent team of experts to undertake an in-depth two-part diagnosis of GSF's approach to equality and non-discrimination (EQND). The first part of the diagnosis – an assessment comprising of visits to six countries (Ethiopia, Malawi, Nepal, Nigeria, Senegal and Togo) and a review of documentation across all GSF-supported programmes – was completed in 2017, resulting in this study. While confirming that many people who may be considered disadvantaged have benefitted positively from GSF-supported programmes, the study emphasizes that more proactive attention is needed to ensure no one is left behind. Several recommendations are offered to better integrate EQND throughout the components and stages of all GSF-supported programmes.
This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2015/16, selected for review under the resilience thematic area. This report documents the findings of a quasi-experimental impact evaluation carried out in November 2015 that sought to assess the impact of the activities of the 'Contributing to the Development of Enabling Conditions for Human Security for Vulnerable Pastoralist and Agro-Pastoralist Communities' project.
The project under review was implemented in the Somali region of Ethiopia and the Galbeed and Togdheer regions of Somaliland between July 2012 and June 2016. The project was carried out by Oxfam in partnership with several organisations, including Ogden Welfare and Development Association (OWDA), Community Development Service Association (CDSA), Somaliland Pastoral Forum (SOLPAF), Candlelight, Himilo Relief and Development Association (HIRDA), and The Horn of Africa Voluntary Youth Committee (HAVOYOCO). The project had three specific objectives: (1) make pastoralist and agro-pastoralist communities more resilient to drought and conflict; (2) increase voice and representation of civil society, especially women's organisations and youth, in decision-making forums; and (3) raise cross-border issues affecting Ethiopia and Somaliland pastoralists and agro-pastoralists at regional and national forums.
Read more about Oxfam's Effectiveness Reviews.
Global Handwashing Partnership;
2016 was a big year in hand hygiene! This summary outlines key themes and findings from 59 peer-reviewed handwashing-related research papers published in 2016, relevant to low and middle-income countries, around 1) the benefits of handwashing with soap, 2) handwashing compliance, 3) approaches to handwashing behavior, 4) determinants of handwashing with soap, and 5) handwashing hardware efficacy.