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Center for Economic and Policy Research;
This paper looks at some of the institutional, policy, and regulatory changes enacted by the government of Ecuador, as well as overall economic and social indicators, over the decade since the Correa government took office.
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD). This REDDX report tracks the 2009-2012 flow of REDD+ finance from a variety of donors to seven tropical forest countries for various types of REDD+ activities. It is based on the hard work and dedication of seven teams of national partners and other experts who surveyed donors, government agencies, implementing agencies, NGOs, and consulting firms involved in the management of REDD+ finance in key REDD+ recipient countries.
Ecuador's coastal and marine area is home to approximately 58% of the country's population. This population lives within 100 km of the coast and is highly dependent upon the coastal and marine ecosystems. Its coastal geography is composed of estuaries, mangroves, mountain systems, beaches, bluffs, islands, shallows, rocky and sandy seabeds and even semi-arid areas: all of which possess tremendous biodiversity and productivity. The convergence of ocean currents creates highly productive rocky seabeds, which are also ideal for the concentration and reproduction of migratory marine species (humpback whales, sea turtles, albatrosses, manta rays, sharks). Ecuador currently possesses 16 coastal marine protected areas (MPAs): nine of which are comprised of estuarine systems and mangrove forests; the other seven are coastal and have a marine protected fringe. Management of current and new protected areas poses a great challenge to the Ministry of the Environment (MAE), as mounting threats will require significant institutional, financial and technological resources. This report analyzes the legal framework, competencies and jurisdictions of all marine enforcement agencies in order to design a cost effective national surveillance system for Ecuador's MPAs. We specifically assessed current MPA surveillance and control capacity at each MPA and designed a blueprint for strengthening enforcement at both the site and provincial level that accounts for factors such as human resources, systematic training, interagency standard operating protocols, vessels, surveillance and communication technology, and long-term costs. With respect to competencies and jurisdictions, the report recommends three priority initiatives that would have immediate positive impacts in MPA enforcement:
1. The MAE must formalize interagency agreements with the Navy and Police as Park Rangers do not possess the power of arrest and there is ever growing security risks at-sea; 2. As the Maritime Police, the Navy must increase their involvement in matters of surveillance and control of MPAs; 3. The MPA Directors must begin to utilize their authority to administer sanctions locally in order to expedite the sanction process and ensure compliance.
The final enforcement system design provides strategic sensor coverage to MPAs, buffer zones and access ways. The strategy combines high-power video cameras and a robust VHF marine and private radio network with the minimum number of personnel and patrol vessels to provide a constant presence and fast response capacity. All CAPEX and OPEX decisions were made in consideration of a highly limited budget, which is currently underwritten by numerous sources. More importantly, we have defined a blueprint of critical steps for the capacity building and professionalization of the Park Rangers, who truly are the core component of the MAE enforcement program.
World Resources Institute (WRI);
This report analyzes the growing body of evidence linking community forest rights with healthier forests and lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from deforestation and forest degradation.
This report makes a strong case for strengthening the rights of indigenous and local communities over their forests as a policy tool for mitigating climate change.
A new report about McKnight support for Andean grains research and development in Bolivia and Ecuador.
Global Alliance for Community Philanthropy;
What makes the global spread of community philanthropy organizations so exciting is the variety of forms they take, adaptations to different local contexts, challenges, resources, and leaders. The core similarities matter -- all in some way help geographic communities mobilize financial and other kinds of capital for improvement of the lives of residents. But so do the differences. Some have endowments, some don't. Some are large, more are small. Some call themselves community foundations, others do not. This diversity is one sign of community philanthropy's flexibility, potential, and rising popularity.
But it also presents a challenge to those who want to better understand and support community philanthropy, especially on a global level. A practice so varied, so organic and tied to local conditions, complicates classification, resists general conclusions, and calls for lots of learning through example. A movement relatively young and quickly evolving, with a limited body of applied research, requires ongoing documentation and study.
The case studies presented here provide intriguing snapshots of locally driven development in communities across the globe.
World Resources Institute (WRI);
Developing countries are receiving new financial and technical support to design and implement programs that reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (referred to as REDD+). Reducing emissions from forest cover change requires transparent, accountable, inclusive, and coordinated systems and institutions to govern REDD+ programs.
Two multilateral initiatives -- the World Bank-administered Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) and the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (UN-REDD Programme) -- are supporting REDD+ countries to become "ready" for REDD+ by preparing initial strategy proposals, developing institutions to manage REDD+ programs, and building capacity to implement REDD+ activities.
This paper reviews 32 REDD+ readiness proposals submitted to these initiatives to understand overall trends in how eight elements of readiness (referred to in this paper as readiness needs) are being understood and prioritized globally. Specifically, we assess whether the readiness proposals (i) identify the eight readiness needs as relevant for REDD+, (ii) discuss challenges and options for addressing each need, and (iii) identify next steps to be implemented in relation to each need. Our analysis found that the readiness proposals make important commitments to developing effective, equitable, and well-governed REDD+ programs. However, in many of the proposals these general statements have not yet been translated into clear next steps.
Center for Economic and Policy Research;
This paper looks at Ecuador's financial and regulatory reforms during the past five years, perhaps the most comprehensive of any country in the 21st century: taking control over the central bank, regulating capital outflows, taxing the financial sector, encouraging domestic investment and co-operatives, and protecting consumers.
Colectivo de Estudios Droges y Derechos (CEDD);
In Latin America, trafficking cocaine so it can be sold to someone who wants to use it is more serious than raping a woman or deliberately killingyour neighbor. While it may seem incredible, that is the conclusion of arigorous study of the evolution of criminal legislation in the region, which shows that countries' judicial systems mete out harsher penalties for traffickingeven modest amounts of drugs than for acts as heinous as sexua lassault or murder.
How have we reached such an unjust and irrational point? In recent decades, especially the 1980s, Latin American countries, influenced by aninternational prohibitionist model, fell -- ironically -- into what we mightmetaphorically call an addiction to punishment.
Addiction creates the need to consume more and more drugs, whichhave less and less effect; ultimately, the problematic user simply consumesdrugs to avoid withdrawal. Drug legislation in Latin America seems to have followed a similar path. Countries have an ever-growing need to add crimes and increase the penalties for drug trafficking, supposedly to control an expanding illegal market, while this increasingly punitive approach has less and less effect on decreasing the supply and use of illegal drugs.
This report explores whether the recent evolution of criminal legislation in Latin American countries with regard to drug-related conducts respects these minimal guarantees to which criminal law should be subject, and especially whether that criminal legislation can be considered proportionate to the harm caused by prohibited conducts. Ultimately, the question is whether the crimes and punishments outlined in national legislation are proportionate. If the answer is no, the conclusion should be that they may even be unconstitutional within the framework of a constitutional state.
To address this question, the report explores the recent development of criminal laws on drug-related crime in seven Latin American countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru and Mexico. These countries were chosen based on two basic criteria. First, they are of academic importance, because they have different drug-related problems, different geographic locations, diverse contexts and different political systems. According to traditional categorization, Colombia, Peru and Bolivia are considered producer countries; Mexico and even Brazil are considered trans-shipment countries. They also represent the different regions of Latin America,from the Southern Cone to the furthest Spanish-speaking country in North America.
This report has three main parts. The first provides a conceptual and methodological overview of the elements that form the basis of the analysis.The second describes the principal recent trends in criminal drug legislation in Latin America. The third analyzes the proportionality of drug-related crimes and punishment in the countries, comparing them with penalties for other serious crimes, followed by some conclusions.
World Food Programme (WFP);
This CaseStudy reports that over the years, many aspects of cash and voucher transfers have been analysed and studied, however, there has not been a substantive amount of study specifically devoted to protection and gender implications - both positive and negative - of such programming. In response, in October and November 2011, WFP conducted a literature review of previous studies of cash and voucher transfers to investigate whether cash and voucher transfers were working towards improving protection of, or at minimum doing no further harm to, beneficiaries, as well as what impacts they could have on gender and community dynamics. In addition, WFP headquarters sent a short questionnaire to their field offices to gather their observations on the impacts of cash and voucher transfers on protection and gender within their own programming.
Este documento es el resultado del trabajo colectivo de quienes conformamos las cinco Casas de Acogida del Ecuador. Han sido cuatro años de reuniones periódicas, intensos debates y reflexiones profundas sobre lo que hemos aprendido al trabajar en la atención a las mujeres que han vivido situaciones de violencia y cuyas vidas se han puesto en peligro.Cuando decidimos conformar la Red Nacional de Casas de Acogida sabíamosque el camino sería largo y sinuoso sin embargo, estábamos seguras de que íbamos a proponer alternativas y modelos para el trabajo con mujeres que huyen de sus hogares para salvar sus vidas.Nuestras Casas de Acogida se rigen bajo el principio de la solidaridad: creemos firmemente en que las mujeres pueden salir de un ciclo violento si tienen un lugar en donde se las acoja, apoye y escuche. Día a día somos testigos de historias de violencia que han producido dolor y miedo físico y emocional. Así han vivido muchas mujeres, sus hijas e hijos, durante años. Sin embargo, hemos constatado que con el acompañamiento necesario ellas y sus familias pueden salir de la violencia. Las mujeres acogidas salen adelante, rehacen sus vidas e intentan vivir plenamente. Por eso, estamos convencidas de que es posible erradicar todas las formas de violencia contra las mujeres.Sabemos que económicamente una casa de acogida no es rentable, al contrario genera muchos gastos, pero no podemos permitir que continúen losasesinatos y agresiones a las mujeres. Se puede poner un alto a la violencia, pero es urgente una concertación nacional que busque la erradicación de todas las formas de violencias contra las mujeres.Les invitamos a conocer nuestras propuestas, nuestros logros y nuestros sueños.7
Center for Economic and Policy Research;
Outside observers could be forgiven for expecting Ecuador to suffer terribly during and after the recent global crisis. Two of the country's largest sources of foreign earnings, petroleum exports and remittances from abroad, crashed during the global recession. Furthermore, lacking its own currency, the government's options for responding were limited. But instead of a deep, protracted recession, Ecuador lost only 1.3 percent of GDP during three quarters of contraction. After four additional quarters the economy returned to the pre-recession level of output, and two years after the recession started, it reached its 20-year growth trend.